Pushback: The Current Wave of Anti-Homosexuality Laws and Impacts on Health
Reduced access to health care, increased discrimination, and impact on HIV research and programs
PLOS Medicine Public Health effects of Anti-Homosexuality Laws in countries like Russia or Uganda are reflected on PLOS Medicine: "Climates of fear are generated by these kinds of impunity, which force people to flee their communities, go into hiding, and avoid places, such as clinical or community outreach facilities, where they might be exposed to ridicule, violence, or arrest. Our research group reported on human rights violations against men who have sex with men (MSM) in Namibia, Botswana, and Malawi in 2007. In each country, men reported avoiding health care and HIV testing, due to fear of abuses or actual past experiences of mistreatment in health care facilities. Men who expressed such fears were less likely to have had a recent HIV test and more likely to have an untreated sexually transmitted infection."