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Chronic diseases: The global epidemic

Chronic diseases: The global epidemic

The WHO’s first “Global Status Report” defines noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer or diabetes as a “slow-motion catastrophe.” Newly industrialized and industrializing countries are the greatest victims of these noncommunicable diseases. 80% of deaths due to cardiovascular disorders, cancer or diabetes were recorded among the poor and under-privileged populations in developing and newly industrializing countries.

Increased life expectancy, rapid urbanization and the universal spread of an unhealthy lifestyle – increased tobacco and alcohol consumption, poor nutrition and lack of exercise – are considered the main causes of the increase in noncommunicable disease.

The spread of noncommunicable disease tells a story of poverty and marginalization – in the North as well as in the South. These diseases affect a population with an already weakened healthcare system, further worsening their situation. Prevention and treatment costs increase. Noncommunicable disease also affects the national economy, with a majority of affected individuals being primarily of working age.

In 2011, noncommunicable disease tops the international agenda for the first time. In Moscow in April 2011 "The First Global Ministerial Conference on Healthy Lifestyles and Noncommunicable Disease Control” took place, and expectations are high for the UN Summit of the international community planned for September 2011.

New Documents in this Dossier

Zuckerkrank im Slum

Ausbreitung von chronischen Krankheiten in Entwicklungsländern
welt-sichten | "Krankheiten wie Diabetes, Herzinfarkt und Krebs breiten sich auch in ärmeren Ländern aus. Wo der Wohlstand wächst, essen die Leute ungesünder und bewegen sich weniger. Viele Regierungen setzen auf Vorbeugung. Doch vor allem müsste die Lebensmittelindustrie stärker an die Kandare genommen werden," schreibt die entwicklungspolitische Fachzeitschrift welt-sichten und bezieht sich dabei auch auf das Netzwerk Medicus Mundi Schwei.
http://www.welt-sichten.org/artikel/13721/zuckerkrank-im-slum

Diet and Physical Activity for the Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

A Systematic Policy Review
PLOS Medicine | "Diet-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and constitute a leading cause of mortality. Although a call for global action has been resonating for years, the progress in national policy development in LMICs has not been assessed. This review of strategies to prevent NCDs in LMICs provides a benchmark against which policy response can be tracked over time. (...) This review indicates the disconnection between the burden of NCDs and national policy responses in LMICs. Policy makers urgently need to develop comprehensive and multi-stakeholder policies to improve dietary quality and physical activity."
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001465

The Lancet's Non-Communicable Diseases Series 2013

Setting out clear plans for countrywide implementation of NCD plans in the post-MDG era
The Lancet | "This latest Series on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) builds on previous Lancet Series (2010, 2007, 2005), and on a landmark high-level United Nations NCD meeting convened in September 2011. The aim of the new Series is to set out clear plans for countrywide implementation of NCD plans in the post-MDG era, towards the unified goal of '25 by 25'—reducing NCD mortality worldwide by 2025."
http://www.thelancet.com/series/non-communicable-diseases
Basics

WHO topics page: Chronic diseases

"Chronic diseases are diseases of long duration and generally slow progression. Chronic diseases are by far the leading cause of mortality in the world, representing 60% of all deaths. Out of the 35 million people who died from chronic disease in 2005, half were under 70 and half were women.”

www.who.int

Diet and Physical Activity for the Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

A Systematic Policy Review
PLOS Medicine | "Diet-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and constitute a leading cause of mortality. Although a call for global action has been resonating for years, the progress in national policy development in LMICs has not been assessed. This review of strategies to prevent NCDs in LMICs provides a benchmark against which policy response can be tracked over time. (...) This review indicates the disconnection between the burden of NCDs and national policy responses in LMICs. Policy makers urgently need to develop comprehensive and multi-stakeholder policies to improve dietary quality and physical activity."
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001465

The Lancet's Non-Communicable Diseases Series 2013

Setting out clear plans for countrywide implementation of NCD plans in the post-MDG era
The Lancet | "This latest Series on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) builds on previous Lancet Series (2010, 2007, 2005), and on a landmark high-level United Nations NCD meeting convened in September 2011. The aim of the new Series is to set out clear plans for countrywide implementation of NCD plans in the post-MDG era, towards the unified goal of '25 by 25'—reducing NCD mortality worldwide by 2025."
http://www.thelancet.com/series/non-communicable-diseases

WHO Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010

The Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2010 from WHO is the first report on the worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases, along with their risk factors and determinants. (…) This report reviews the current status of noncommunicable diseases and provides a road map for reversing the epidemic by strengthening national and global monitoring and surveillance, scaling up the implementation of evidence-based measures to reduce risk factors and improving access to cost-effective healthcare interventions."

whqlibdoc.who.int

Chronic disease: an economic perspective

Report of the Oxford Health Alliance 2006: "This major report, 'Chronic disease: an economic perspective', written by Marc Suhrcke, Rachel A. Nugent, David Stuckler and Lorenzo Rocco for OxHA, demonstrates that chronic diseases – heart and lung disease, cancer and diabetes – are having a negative economic impact on both the developed and developing world and should thus be adequately addressed by domestic and international policy makers" (The Oxford Health Allicance, 2006).

www.sehn.org

Chronic diseases and development

A landmark global alliance between leading scientists and four of the world’s largest NGOs brings together evidence from a 5-year collaboration with almost 100 of the world’s best NCD experts and proposes a short-list of five priority interventions to tackle the increasing global crisis.

www.thelancet.com

Chronic Disease Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Whose Business Is It?

Public health specialists and clinicians alike agree that Humanity faces a global pandemic of chronic diseases in the 21st century. This article discusses the implications of this pandemic on another global issue, the health workforce. Because both issues are particularly acute in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), it focuses on this region and uses Cameroon as a case in point. It first gauges the epidemic of chronic conditions in SSA. Then it discusses the implications of chronic conditions for the reshaping of health systems and the health workforce. It concludes by making a strong case for the building up and strengthening the health workforce, insisting on the crucial role of nurses, their training, and involvement in chronic disease management (Alexander Bischoff et al., 2009)

www.mdpi.com

MMS Bulletin 115: Chronische Krankheiten: Globale Gesundheit vor neuen Herausforderungen

Medicus Mundi Schweiz hat im Januar 2008 einen Reader zum 8. Symposium der schweizerischen Gesunheitszusammenarbeit herausgegeben. Mit Beiträgen zu Hintergründen, Präventions-kampagnen und Projekten der internationalen Gesundheitszusammenarbeit zum Thema Chronische Krankheiten. Lesen Sie die Beiträge online:

www.medicusmundi.ch

WHO maps noncommunicable disease trends in all countries

Country profiles on noncommunicable disease trends in 193 countries
WHO | "A new WHO report features information about the noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) situation in 193 countries, as global leaders prepare to meet at the United Nations high-level meeting on noncommunicable diseases in New York, 19-20 September 2011."
http://bit.ly/psvFWd
UN Summit on NCDs: the current debates

Nichtübertragbare Krankheiten – Uno-Gipfel mit Schlagseite

(Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 6. Oktober 2011) Nichtübertragbare, chronische Krankheiten entwickeln sich weltweit zu einer Gefahr für die soziale und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Die Uno widmete ihnen eine Gipfelkonferenz in New York – allerdings mit einer zu eingeschränkten Perspektive," schreiben Matthias Leicht-Miranda (cbm) und Josef Kasper (SRK) vom Netzwerk Medicus Mundi Schweiz in der NZZ.

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Une réponse globale au fléau mondial des maladies chroniques

(Le Temps, 30 séptembre 2011) "Le pays pauvres qui s'engagent à lutter contres les MNT ne devraient pas avoir à choisir entre prévention et soins," écrivent Slim Slam (SIM/Geneva Health Forum) et Petra Schroeter (Handicap International Suisse) dans Le Temps pour le Réseau Medicus Mundi Suisse.

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Pharma supporters ensure new drugs for cancer are not on the UN agenda

Little about treatement for canceer at the UN Summit
Guardian Online | "The EU and USA lobbied hard to prevent any mention in the UN declaration on non-communicable diseases of legal loopholes to allow poor countries to obtain new drugs for cancer, heart and lung diseases and diabetes on the cheap," writes Sarah Boseley on Guardian Online.
http://bit.ly/oMZJjo

Political Declaration of the High-level Meeting on the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases

The General Assembly adopted by consensus the resolution titled "Political Declaration of the High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases" (pdf)

bit.ly

Ausbreitung chronischer Krankheiten: Diabetes im Slum

MMS | "Fast Food erobert mittlerweile auch die Entwicklungs-und Schwellenländer. Die zunehmende "Verwestlichung" hat dazu geführt, dass immer mehr Menschen in ärmeren Ländern an den Folgen sterben. Experten gehen von 30 Millionen Toten durch Diabetes, Herzleiden und Krebs aus." Interview auf detektor.fm mit Martin Leschhorn Strebel, Netzwerk Medicus Mundi Schweiz.
http://detektor.fm/politik/ausbreitung-chronischer-krankheiten-diabetes-im-slum/

The UN's Battle with NCDs

How Politics, Commerce, and Science Complicated the Fight Against an "Invisible Epidemic"
Foreign Affaires | In an interesting report, Sheri Fink an Rebecca Rabinowitz report for the magazin Foreign Affairs on the conflicting interests before the UN-Summit on non-communicable diseases.
http://fam.ag/qYkhCx

UN High-Level Meeting puts NCDs on the Map

Statement of the NCD Alliance
NCD Alliance | "Governments must use Summit momentum to agree ambitious targets to curb the epidemic; and are urged to start drafting costed national NCD plans immediately," writes the NCD Alliance on Monday, 19th September 2011.
http://www.ncdalliance.org/node/3517

Conflicts of interest and the UN high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases

"Many non-governmental organisations and professional groups are increasingly concerned by the current UN approach to engaging with private-sector and trade associations whose products and marketing contribute to the development of non-communicable diseases (NCD). The UN high-level meeting on NCDs (chiefly cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases) on Sept 19—20, 2011, will present an unprecedented opportunity to address this important but neglected global health issue. More than 140 public-interest organisations from around the world have signed up to the Conflict of Interest Declaration, which has been sent to the President of the General Assembly, and the co-convenors of the high-level meeting—the Ambassadors from Luxembourg and Jamaica."

www.thelancet.com

World Leaders Make Strong Commitment to Adressing the Global NCD Crisis

"The NCD Alliance welcomes agreement by leaders of the 193 UN Member States on a Political Declaration recognizing the scale of the global NCD crisis and the urgent need for action ahead of a High-Level Meeting of the UN General Assembly on 19-20 September."

www.ncdalliance.org

Prevention ‒ a cost-effective way to fight the non-communicable disease epidemic

An academic perspective of the United Nations High-Level NCD Meeting
Swiss Medical Weekly | In the Swiss Medical Weekly the MMS member organisation Swiss TPH presents an academia perspective on the summit: "The NCD Summit offers an opportunity for strengthening and shaping primary prevention, the most cost-effective instrument to fight major risk factors such as tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet. From a Swiss perspective, we also emphasised the efforts for new laws on prevention and diagnosis registration, in accordance with the recommendations of the NCD summit in order to strengthen primary prevention and disease monitoring. In addition, the need for structural prevention across all policy sectors with leadership in environmental policy making to prevent NCDs as well as the need to adapt and strengthen primary health care are equally relevant for Switzerland. To compliment efforts in primary prevention, the field of NCDs requires special R&D platforms for affordable NCD drugs and diagnostics for neglected population segments in both Switzerland and low and middle income countries. Switzerland has a track record in research and development against diseases of poverty on a global scale that now needs to be applied to NCDs."
http://www.smw.ch/content/smw-2011-13266/

We Need Measurable Outcomes From the UN High-Level Meeting on NCDs

"We were deeply perturbed to learn that the negotiations for the Outcomes Document of the UN High Level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), a mere month or so away, had stalled because member states failed to reach consensus," writes Nalini Saligram on Huffington Post.

www.huffingtonpost.com

UN Member States jeopardise international progress on non-communicable disease epidemic

"International progress on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and chronic respiratory disease, is at grave risk, because of recent efforts by some member states to postpone and weaken United Nations negotiations, an alliance of civil society organisations" warned the NCD Alliance. on 17 August 2011.

www.ncdalliance.org

Stop Unhealthy Partnerships

"Everyday we read or hear about unhealthy foods - foods like infant formula, processed/packaged industrially made infant foods, junk foods, foods with high levels of starch, transfats, highly processed foods, which increase our risk of getting cancer, heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and other non- communicable diseases (NCDs). The UN is currently developing a “Political Declaration” and preparing for the High Level UN Summit on NCDs to be held in September at New York. The declaration proposes partnerships with private sector for its future work. That means manufacturers of unhealthy foods including infant foods and junk foods will be able to influence future strategies. That is an UNHEALTHY PARTERSHIP, you need to take action to stop it." Petition.

www.onemillioncampaign.org
Social, political and economic factors

Zuckerkrank im Slum

Ausbreitung von chronischen Krankheiten in Entwicklungsländern
welt-sichten | "Krankheiten wie Diabetes, Herzinfarkt und Krebs breiten sich auch in ärmeren Ländern aus. Wo der Wohlstand wächst, essen die Leute ungesünder und bewegen sich weniger. Viele Regierungen setzen auf Vorbeugung. Doch vor allem müsste die Lebensmittelindustrie stärker an die Kandare genommen werden," schreibt die entwicklungspolitische Fachzeitschrift welt-sichten und bezieht sich dabei auch auf das Netzwerk Medicus Mundi Schwei.
http://www.welt-sichten.org/artikel/13721/zuckerkrank-im-slum

Armut, Krise und Globalisierung: Chronische Krankheiten haben eine Geschichte

Auch in Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern haben sich die chronischen Krankheiten zur häufigsten Todesursache entwickelt. Dahinter stehen soziale, politische und ökonomische Ursachen. Die internationale Gesundheitspolitik steht vor einer grossen Herausforderung.

www.medicusmundi.ch

Social Determinants of Health: Chronic Diseases - Individual choices and the social circumstances

The social gradient in health, seen for a number of health outcomes including certain non-communicable chronic diseases, indicates that the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age influence their health. The World Health Organization´s Commission on Social Determinants of Health made recommendations on ways to tackle avoidable systematic differences in health between groups and to improve population health. (Ruth Bell in the Bulletin of Medicus Mundi Switzerland No 115, February 2010)

www.medicusmundi.ch

The implications of trade liberalization for diet and health: A case study from Central America

Central America has undergone extensive trade liberalization over the past two decades, and has recently signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. The region is also experiencing a dual burden of malnutrition with the growth of dietary patterns associated with the global 'nutrition transition'. This study describes the relationship between trade liberalization policies and food imports and availability, and draws implications for diet and health, using Central America as a case study region.

www.globalizationandhealth.com

Where Have All the Donors Gone? Scarce Donor Funding for Non-Communicable Diseases

Global development assistance for health (DAH) was estimated at $21.8 billion in 2007. A recent assessment shows that official development assistance for health reached $26.4 billion in 2008, surpassing all prior years. No specific mention is made of DAH for NCDs in developing countries in either study. This paper aims to fill that gap. We conducted an analysis of donor spending on NCDs in developing countries from 2001 to 2008 that reveals that less than 3 percent ($503 million out of $22 billion) of overall DAH was dedicated to NCDs in 2007 (By Rachel Nugent and Andrea B. Feigl).

www.cgdev.org

Getting the politics right for the September 2011 UN NCD Meeting

The UN General Assembly’s decision to convene a “high-level meeting on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide” in September 2011 creates a major, timely opportunity to elevate chronic diseases onto the global stage. Just as the 2001 UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS was a pivotal moment in the global response to AIDS, there is hope that the September session on NCDs can become a historic rallying point. But we need to be realistic. Time to prepare adequately is short. NCDs do not enjoy many of the advantages that helped propel AIDS to become a global priority. High-level leadership is thus far missing, and the odds are long that the September meeting will have a transformative impact. (…) There are four key propositions that if acted upon in a timely way could help raise the prospects of success for this high-level session (Devi Sridhar et al., February 2011).

csis.org

Das blinde Auge der Präventionsarbeit

Dank dem UNO-Weltkongress zu nicht-übertragbaren Krankheiten im kommenden September erhalten die Chronischen Krankheiten endlich einen höheren Platz auf der globalen Gesundheitsagenda. Martin Leschhorn Strebel* hofft, dass nun endlich auch die strukturellen Ursachen der globalen Epidemie angegangen werden.

Das blinde Auge der Präventionsarbeit
Political commitment to combating noncommunicable diseases

Noncommunicable Diseases - joint statement by MMI and PHM at World Health Assembly

“It is disappointing that there is no reference to the work of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) in the report. Unhealthy behaviors do play an important role in determining NCDs however there are structural determinants like education, income, gender and ethnicity which are underlying causes of NCDs and behavioral risk factors” (Medicus Mundi International, May 2011).

www.medicusmundi.org

Statement of concern on lack of clarity on role of industry for June UN interactive hearing and September UN High Level Meeting 2011

Our organisations strongly support the objective of raising the profile of NCDs globally. This statement concerns the lack of clarity regarding the role of the private sector at the upcoming Civil Society Interactive Hearing in New York and UN High Level Meeting (UN HLM) in September (Baby Milk Action, 18 June 2011).

info.babymilkaction.org

UN High-Level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases: addressing four questions

The UN High-Level Meeting (UN HLM) on NCDs in September, 2011, is an opportunity to stimulate a coordinated global response to NCDs that is commensurate with their health and economic burdens. To achieve the promise of the UN HLM, several questions must be addressed. In this report, we present the realities of the situation by answering four questions: is there really a global crisis of NCDs; how is NCD a development issue; are affordable and cost-effective interventions available; and do we really need high-level leadership and accountability? Action against NCDs will support other global health and development priorities. A successful outcome of the UN HLM depends on the heads of states and governments attending the meeting, and endorsing and implementing the commitments to action. Long-term success requires inspired and committed national and international leadership (Robert Beaglehole et al., 13 June 2011).

www.lancet.com

Priority actions for the non-communicable disease crisis

The UN High-Level Meeting (UN HLM) on NCDs in September, 2011, provides an unrivalled opportunity to create a sustained rights-based global movement to tackle NCDs, analogous to the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV infection and AIDS a decade ago, which concluded that dealing with the disease was central to the development agenda. Political leadership at the highest level, with international coordination and consensus for priority actions and interventions are crucial responses to the crisis in NCDs and to facilitate national action (Robert Beaglehole et al., April 2011).

www.thelancet.com

NCD Alliance Proposed Outcomes Document for the UN High-Level Summit

Governments around the world have agreed to hold a United Nations High Level Summit (UNS) on 19-20th September 2011 in New York which will be attended by UN member state Heads of State and Heads of Government. This Summit has the potential to change the world for those living with NCDs, but only if the meeting results in measurable commitments to take action. (…) The NCD Alliance, as the unique global voice representing those living with or affected by NCDs, has issued a Proposed Outcomes Document containing national and global targets for NCDs which we believe would represent a successful Summit.

www.ncdalliance.org

Calling the world to action on diabetes: an advocacy toolkit

The International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) is leading a global campaign to ensure the UN Summit on NCDs produces the most effective outcomes for the global diabetes community. For this purpose the IDF has launched an Advocacy Toolkit that aims to bridge global to local advocacy through information, guidance and key tools and resources.

www.idf.org

The Burden of Cancer in Developing Countries

The report is part of the Council’s Cancer Advocacy and Learning Initiative, a project to raise awareness about the burden of cancer in developing countries and to develop policy, advocacy and research agendas to direct the global health community’s work on this topic of concern (A Global Health Council Report on the Cancer Advocacy and Learning Institute, June 2010).

application.fnu.ac.fj

Disability and Non Communicable Diseases

This policy brief discusses the actions urgently needed to ensure that people with impairments due to NCDs have access to treatment and appropriate, timely, affordable, and high-quality rehabilitation interventions for all those who need them. These actions are in line with the Proposed Outcomes Document for the Prevention and Control of NCDs, recommendations of the World Report on Disability and the principles and standards of international human rights law, in particular the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. A large number of people living with NCDs are likely to develop impairments as the disease progresses. According to studies, 13% to 65% of the persons living with diabetes will develop neuropathy, leading to chronic ulcerations and amputations in 1% to 17% of them; 10 to 47% of persons living with diabetes will develop a retinopathy leading to visual impairment . In 2004, there were 30.7 millions of people in the world, living with impairments due to stroke, one of the conditions caused by cardiovascular risk factors. This policy brief has been endorsed by the following International Non Governmental Organisations: Handicap International, CBM international, Motivation, Rehabilitation International and The speech therapist international society.

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Swiss project work dedicated to fight against noncommunicable diseases

Ist Globalisierung ansteckend? Was haben „Fortschrittskrankheiten“ in den ärmsten Ländern zu suchen?

Das 8. Symposium der schweizerischen Gesundheitszusammenarbeit eröffnete der Direktor der Direktion für Entwicklung und Zusammenarbeit mit grundsätzlichen Überlegungen zur Bedeutung der Gesundheit in der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit und den Herausforderungen an die DEZA durch die chronischen Krankheiten. (Rede von Martin Dahinden, Direktor der Direktion für Entwicklung und Zusammenarbeit am MMS Symposium 2009).

www.medicusmundi.ch

Handicap International: Le diabète – une maladie peu connue et mal comprise

Cet article présente quelques constats dressés par Handicap International au cours de ces trois dernières années aux Philippines, au Nicaragua et en Afrique subsaharienne (Mali, Kenya, Burundi). Les connaissances empiriques acquises par notre organisation au cours d’un premier cycle de mise en œuvre de projets de prévention et de contrôle du diabète sont éclairées par quelques références à la littérature existante.

www.medicusmundi.ch

Swiss Red Cross: Prevention of Chronic Diseases in Transition Countries

Romania and the Republic of Moldova are confronted with a high burden of non-communicable diseases. In partnership with the Romanian NGO FSM the Swiss Red Cross is working in the North East of Romania and in the bordering Moldova with a comprehensive approach.

www.medicusmundi.ch

Swiss Red Cross: Let’s join the Hypertension Club!

Self-help groups and self-management of chronic diseases have been proposed as a model for the future to address the burgeoning prevalence of chronic diseases occurring also in developing countries. Aspects of the self-help group and self-management models, such as empowerment of the patients and increasing their control over their own health, are highly aligned with the Community Action for Health model of the Kyrgyz Swiss Swedish Health Project (Elisabeth Lundeen and Tobias Schülth, Swiss Red Cross).

www.medicusmundi.ch

MediCuba: Krebsbekämpfung - in Kuba eine Selbstverständlichkeit

Ist Krebs denn überhaupt relevant für Entwicklungsprojekte? Krebs fordert heute weltweit mehr Todesopfer als Malaria, Tuberkulose und Aids zusammen. Im Jahr 2000 wurden rund 10 Millionen Krebsdiagnosen gestellt – bis ins Jahr 2030 dürften es, das Bevölkerungswachstum eingerechnet, bereits 30 Millionen sein. Kuba, schon seit Jahrzehnten aktiv im Kampf gegen den Krebs, hat entsprechend eines Beschlusses der WHO vom Mai 2005 die Krebsbekämpfung zu einer seiner Prioritäten erklärt (Marianne Widmer Eppel, mediCubaa Suisse).

www.medicusmundi.ch
Health promotion and disease prevention

WHO: 2008-2013 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases

“We know what works, we know what it costs and we know that all countries are at risk. We have an Action Plan to avert millions of premature deaths and help promote a better quality of life for millions more.” (…) The Action Plan of the World Health Organisation highlights the pressing need to invest in NCD prevention as an integral part of sustainable socioeconomic development. NCD prevention is an all-government responsibility. (2009)

www.who.int

Health Promotion: Concepts and Practices

Health Promotion (HP) is a concept which is of high relevance to resource poor countries as it uses a very holistic development approach and addresses many of the social, environmental, cultural, and systems related aspects of the determinants of health. Empowering communities, individuals and families lies at the heart of this agenda. Depending on the specific needs in a given context, HP can provide solutions for any setting and complement other necessary initiatives such as the health system strengthening efforts. Some experts postulate that for Sub Saharan Africa the HP agenda would be a more relevant concept to help drive development efforts than the rather narrow Millennium Development Goals, which are limited to a selected set of more donor defined goals (Claudia Kessler et al., 2011).

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A Framework to Monitor and Evaluate the Implementation: Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health

The overall aims of this document are to: provide guidance to Member States on monitoring and evaluation of national diet and physical activity policies and to assist them in identifying specific indicators to measure the implementation of these policies.

www.who.int

WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2003) - Resolution (WHA 56.1) adopted by the World Health Assembly

The objective of this Convention and its protocols is to protect present and future generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke by providing a framework for tobacco control measures to be implemented by the Parties at the national, regional and international levels in order to reduce continually and substantially the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke.”

whqlibdoc.who.int

Noncommunicable diseases and mental health

The mission of the Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health Cluster (NMH) is to provide leadership and the evidence base for international action on surveillance, prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, mental health disorders, malnutrition, violence and injuries, and disabilities.

www.who.int
Global alliances

The NCD Alliance

The NCD Alliance uses targeted advocacy and outreach to ensure that NCDs are recognized as a major cause of poverty, a barrier to economic development and a global emergency. This is done by working with a wide range of partners and organizations, speaking with a united voice at key international meetings, and pressing governments to recognize that NCDs are a global development priority requiring an urgent response. (…) "We are an informal alliance of four international federations (IDF, UICC, worldheart, The Union) representing the four main NCDs outlined in the World Health Organization’s 2008-2013 Action Plan for NCDs: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease."

www.ncdalliance.org

The NCD Action Network

The NCD Action Network is a civil society movement, increasing resources and inspiring action to address the global non-communicable disease (“NCD”) epidemic. (…) Recognizing the importance of mobilizing civic coalitions, leadership and heads of state to ensure a successful UN summit in September, the Young Professionals Chronic Disease Network (YP-CDN) launched NCD Action as a social movement to inspire civic action around the world. (…) “We are a global alliance of students, professionals and concerned citizens committed to improving the health of communities worldwide by addressing the growing epidemic of NCDs. We believe that the world needs a social movement to drive political action for the prevention of NCDs.”

ncdaction.org

Consortium for NCD prevention and control in sub-Saharan Africa

Recognizing the increasing relevance of lifestyle-related NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa, the Department of Health, UK in partnership with the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) and the African Institute for Health & Development (AIHD) initiated and facilitated a process of supporting countries in the region to help advocate and maximise their efforts for NCD prevention and control.

www.aihdint.org

The Oxford Health Alliance

We know that awareness of chronic epidemic disease has increased over the past few years and this is illustrated by the formation of NCDnet, an initiative of the World Health Organisation (WHO) which is working in the area of non-communicable disease, and the development of a collaboration between eight Medical Research Councils (MRC) called the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD). The next logical step for OxHA is to move from awareness raising to implementing community-based research, driving policy change and developing communications.

www.oxha.org